Python3.x:requests的用法

1,requests 比 urllib.request 容错能力更强;

2,通常用法:

(1).认证、状态码、header、编码、json

r = requests.get('https://api.github.com/user', auth=('user', 'pass')) 
r.status_code 
 
r.headers['content-type'] 
输出:'application/json; charset=utf8' 
r.encoding 
输出:'utf-8' 
r.text 
输出:u'{"type":"User"...' 
r.json() 
输出:{u'private_gists': 419, u'total_private_repos': 77, ...}

(2).发起请求

import requests 
URL="http://www.bsdmap.com/" 
# 
r = requests.get(URL) 
# 
r = requests.post(URL) 
# 
r = requests.put(URL) 
# 
r = requests.delete(URL) 
# 
r = requests.head(URL) 
# 
r = requests.options(URL)

(3).通过URL传递参数

payload = {'key1': 'value1', 'key2': 'value2'} 
r = requests.get("http://httpbin.org/get", params=payload) 
print r.url 
输出:u'http://httpbin.org/get?key2=value2&key1=value1'

(4).返回内容

import requests 
r = requests.get('https://github.com/timeline.json') 
r.text 
输出:'[{"repository":{"open_issues":0,"url":"https://github.com/... 
r.encoding 
输出:'utf-8' 
r.encoding = 'ISO-8859-1'

(5).二进制内容

r.content 
输出:b'[{"repository":{"open_issues":0,"url":"https://github.com/... 
 
from PIL import Image 
from StringIO import StringIO 
i = Image.open(StringIO(r.content))

(6).JSON

import requests 
r = requests.get('https://github.com/timeline.json') 
r.json() 
输出:[{u'repository': {u'open_issues': 0, u'url': 'https://github.com/...

(7).超时

requests.get('http://github.com', timeout=0.001)

(8).自定义header

import json 
url = 'https://api.github.com/some/endpoint' 
payload = {'some': 'data'} 
headers = {'content-type': 'application/json'} 
 
r = requests.post(url, data=json.dumps(payload), headers=headers)

官方文档:http://docs.python-requests.org/en/latest/user/quickstart/

 

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